x[Is6WVS\ iO9fr8ei7#{ )JLlo >J8i).Uw6(wq_TQ]t|P:n_EZj3+6HIzF4~WU PT*^I5=s?e5v]a~. <>

39 0 obj endobj 2 0 obj Furthermore, the size of the sample could explain the low correlations found between certain variables. 24, In past decades, research showed that the construct "parental control" was ambiguous because it was used in different and contradictory ways. Trajectories of perceived parental psychological control across adolescence and implications for the development of depressive and anxiety symptoms. This research examined the psychometric properties of the PCS-YSR and PCDS in two samples of Spanish late adolescents. 7o\; ^n25+sgiS*~ p.z uoa_%t$v9B|st(9_$?-Lx0c B"-bsg=Sy,h6?h=*B#Lj+eL9r'r058@6U )", and item 2, "My Mother or Father is a person who embarrasses me in public (e.g. [Links], Blossom, J.B., Fite, P. J., Frazer, P. J., Cooley, J. L., & Evans, S. (2016). [Links], Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyten, P., Duriez, B., & Goossens, L. (2005). In addition, the Item Response Theory was used to analyze the differential analysis of items and deepen the role of each reactive in the construct validity of instruments through the IRTPRO software 4.2 (Scientific Software International, 2017. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. to my brother or sister, to her/himself)], A menudo me ignora (Ejemplo: Evitndome, no prestndome atencin) [Often ignores me (e.g. El constructo "control psicolgico parental" se ha utilizado para referirse a los comportamientos de los progenitores que interfieren con los pensamientos y sentimientos de los nios y nias. Early adolescent social and overt aggression: Examining the roles of social anxiety and maternal psychological control. 49 0 obj endobj The social self-concept is the most affected when the father carries out behaviors such as making their son/daughter feel guilty, criticizing them, withdrawing affection when their son/daughter doesn't think like him, or pulling back when their son/daughter disappoints him. The fit, in this model, was not good; the TLC and CFI values did not reach the optimum cut-off point. Upper values slash from fathers and lower slash from mothers (F/M), As EFA did not reveal clear solutions, a confirmatory factor analysis considering one and two domains, respectively, was conducted for the definition of psychological control. In PCDS, psychological control was operationalized as disrespect behaviors such as (a) ridiculing, (b) embarrassing in public, (c) invalidating, (d) violation of privacy, (e) induction of guilt, (f) excessive expectations, (g) comparing to others, and (h) ignoring. Self-concept. https://vpgcentral.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/IRTPROGuide.pdf. Firstly, as construct-related evidence was run an exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were carried out to PCS-YSR and PCDS separately for fathers and mothers. endobj <> <>1]/P 6 0 R/Pg 39 0 R/S/Link>> Concerning fathers' ratings, items 5, 6, 14 y 15 loaded in one factor (a = .87), and the rest of items gathered in another factor (a = .91). [Links], Barber, B., Xia, M., Olsen, J., McNeely, C., y Bose, K. (2012). saying I am stupid, useless, etc. Psychological Control Scale (PCS-YSR) (Barber, 1996). So, autonomy supportive strategies are provision of choice with certain limits, rationale for demands and limits, and acknowledgement of feelings Controlling parenting behaviors are threats to punish, performance pressures, and guilt-inducing criticisms. <>/Metadata 2 0 R/Outlines 5 0 R/Pages 3 0 R/StructTreeRoot 6 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> The validity indexes were between .55 and .71 in the original version for convergent validity (Soenens et al., 2010) and for divergent validity the values were -.10 and -.50. Parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control among African American youth. Adems, examinamos la contribucin nica del control psicolgico parental en la prediccin del autoconcepto del adolescente. Lastly, Table 6 shows that Model 3 is the most parsimonious model, and Table 7 depicts the standardized coefficients. Consequently, both instruments were answered thinking of their father and mother independently. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 445-455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9158-y.

Regarding psychological-manipulative control behaviors from fathers, the results were similar for men and women, regardless of gender. Adolescent participants rated each item on a 7-Likert scale, first regarding the mother and second, the father (1 = Do not agree at all to 7 = Very strongly agree).

Psychological Control; Perfectionism; Self-Esteem, Path Analysis, JOURNAL NAME: Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Table 2Factor loadings for Psychological Control Scale (PCS-YSR) and Psychological Control-Disrespect Scale (PCDS) reliability. 6 0 obj If students did not want to participate in the study, they could leave the classroom but most of them agreed to participate in the research. Keywords:psychometrics; reliability; cross-cultural; late adolescents; parental psychological control. Validation of the Perceived Parental Autonomy Support Scale (P-PASS). Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS) (Soenens et al., 2010). This method has proven to be the most effective one with relatively small samples (Ferrando & Anguiano-Carrasco, 2010). The questionnaires were administered after obtaining permission from the college management. Focusing on the standardized factor loadings for PCS-YSR and PCDS, the results were similar to Barber's et al., (2012) ones; these authors found the PCS-YSR highest loadings in items 4, 5 and 6; PCDS items 3 and 5, obtained the highest values in the five samples used. So, in some studies, there were no gender differences (Arim and Shapka, 2008), whereas in other studies a greater influence of paternal psychological control was found (Casas et al., 2006; Lansford et al., 2014; Rogers et al., 2003). September 17, 2019; Revised: Considering fathers, n = 285 (there were 27 missing values) the two- dimension model got the best fit, x2 (285, 98) = 218.26; p < .001; TLI = .88, CFI = .90, RMSEA = .06, SRMR = .05. Note. In the Spanish version the alpha values were .92 for replies about fathers, and. In sum, it was expected to replicate the structure of both scales concluding that PCS-YSR scale was psychometrically distinct from the PCDS scale. <>9]/P 19 0 R/Pg 39 0 R/S/Link>> These findings illustrate the good construct validity of both instruments. Nuestro estudio tuvo como objetivo validar y adaptar la versin espaola de la Escala de Control Psicolgico-Autoinforme Adolescente (PCS-YSR) y la Escala Control Psicolgico-Falta de Respeto (PCDS), y analizar si el control psicolgico parental se define como una dimensin o dos dimensiones a travs de conductas manipuladoras e irrespetuosas hacia los adolescentes. [Links], Bean, R., Barber, B., y Crane, D. (2006). Furthermore, in order to guarantee its reliability and validity, 13.4 points are required when a test is translated into another language (AERA, APA & NMCE, 1999, p.99, cited in Hambleton, Merenda & Spielberger, 2005).

Examples of this type of behaviors would be inducing guilt or shame as well as the withdrawal of affection. The conceptual dimension refers to the attempt of parents to monitor the children's feelings and emotions. In order to test the distribution of normality, skewness and kurtosis values in each of the variables were considered. Journal of Adolescence , 35, 261-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.064. This is so because the DAPCS scale measures two types of parental psychological control: dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control, but at the base of both types of psychological control are the manipulative and disrespect parental behaviors which are measured by the PCS-YRS and PCDS. df = degrees of freedom, TLI-NNFI =Tucker Lewis Index - Non-normed Fit Index, CFI = comparative fit index, RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSR= Root Mean Square of Residuals. endobj Extending knowledge of parents' role in adolescent development: The mediating effect of self-esteem. Traditionally, results of cross-cultural and longitudinal studies showed that perceived psychological control had a positively association with internalizing problems, although there were differences between the influence of mothers' and fathers' psychological control (Aunola et al., 2013; Barber et al., 2005; Lansford et al., 2014; Mabbe et al., 2016; Rogers et al., 2003).

In the fathers' sample was G2=240.52, p > .05; RMSEA = .00. Journal of Youth and Adolescence , 43, 1877-1889. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-0079-2. endobj 3 Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Espaa. Reliability in the original version was .89, for mothers and fathers. The study extends previous research in Spain, a country which has different linguistic and cultural backgrounds from Barber's and other research samples. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior. 0v0,H>PA)5 0y-! , V9,O2 e`e{ @1nI(F + 2101 0 obj application/pdf So it is established that psychological control has three components: The first one of them is manipulation and coercion, understanding that psychological control manipulates or dominates the child for the sake of parental demands or expectations; the second component is the intrusion into the children personal domain; and the third component is disrespect. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 273-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.064. It also contributed to extending previous research which concluded that controlling parents had a negative influence on adolescents' psychological well-being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 2474-2484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-0050-1. 2 Influence of perceived maternal psychological control on academic performance in Chinese adolescents: Moderating roles of adolescents' age, gender, and filial piety. The scree plot and ''minimum partial test'' were used to determine how many factors were retained. These eight domains were grouped into eight items that Barber et al., (2012) called "Psychological Control-Disrespect Scale" (PCDS). 2 5 0 obj 48 0 obj ; & Favez, N. (2012). endobj The strategy was to verify, first, the influence of psychological control, assessed by PCS-YSR, alone (Model 1). Park E. Atatah, Catherine W. Kisavi-Atatah, A. N. Ghameshlou, A. Khodkar, R. Saei, S.M. In contrast, behavioral control is related primarily to externalized problems. Regarding PCDS, the items with the highest loadings were the same for fathers and mothers; item 3 was the one with the highest value; however, item 1 was the second with a higher value in mothers. <>26 0 R]/P 6 0 R/S/Link>> 32 0 obj It should be noted that the population samples in which the scales were originally applied and in which we have carried out the present study have important cultural and linguistic differences. stream 2 Psychological Control-Disrespect Scale (PCDS) (Barber et al., 2012). [Links], Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., & Duriez , (2008). For this reason, it is logical to conclude that mothers have a greater influence on children's and adolescents' adjustment. 9 0 obj Barber, B. K. (1996). Both scales have been validated in the United States with demographically varied samples (Barber, 1996; Barber et al., 2012; Romm et al., 2020) and this study intends to contribute to their validation and adaptation to the Spanish context, which has a different linguistic and cultural background. [Links], Mrquez, C.V., Villareal, L., Verdugo, J.C., & Montes, R. (2014). endobj [Links], Loukas, A., Paulos, S.K., & Robinson, S. (2005). First, in the qualitative phase, focus groups were conducted with several youths from five cultures. Table 3Item s analysis from the Psychological Control Scale (PCS-YSR) and the Psychological Control-Disrespect Scale (PCDS) Mothers ' version.. In sum, mothers and fathers were predictors of adolescents' self-concept. 2 The reliability of the overall scale is .82; and for each self-concept is, respectively: academic/ professional life, a = .88; social, a = .70; emotional, a = .73; family, a = .77 and physical, a = .74. However, the PCS-YSR data are not clear, particularly for mothers. Adolescents socially-prescribed perfectionism mediated the relationship between fathers controlling expectations and adolescents self-esteem. endobj <>1175 0 R]/P 2098 0 R/Pg 2087 0 R/S/Link>> The multi-group analysis confirmed that parental psychological control had a negative influence on self-concept. M . January 24, 2020; Accepted: Parental psychological control and aggression in youth: Moderating effect of emotion dysregulation.

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 44, 12-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2016.02.006. In addition, in this study, unlike the initial samples in which the scales were originally applied, the sample was very homogeneous about ethnicity due to the fact that there was not much ethnic diversity in Asturias, as it is a Spanish region with a low number of immigrants. The construct core is the ability of parents to control their children using manipulation, coercion and a wrong exercise of parenthood. Disrespectful behaviors in mothers towards their children seem to develop a lower family self-concept, both in male and female students. This new conceptualization was submitted to empirical validation using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology (Barber et al., 2012). <> Thus, traditionally, mothers have been more involved in children and adolescents' development. [Links], Romm, K.F., & Metzger, A. The normality of the sample was assessed (skewness, kurtosis) and Bartlett's and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin's (KMO) indexes were calculated. So, when the family environment is controlling, adolescents can feel dissatisfied and frustrated and they may be more vulnerable to develop a negative sense of family belonging. <>20]/P 22 0 R/Pg 39 0 R/S/Link>> The factor analysis produced solutions with good fit indices, but not with an adequate structure model. Mplus user's guide (7th Ed.).

En dos muestras de estudiantes universitarios de pregrado (la primera n = 367, edad media = 19.8, mujeres = 62.7%, hombres = 37.3%, y la segunda, n = 312, edad media = 19.7, mujeres = 73.9%, hombres = 26.1%), los anlisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios confirmaron la estructura factorial hipottica del PCS-YSR y del PCDS, tanto para las puntuaciones paterna como materna. <> This heterogeneity in the meaning of the construct had a direct effect on the results obtained in the research, which have been very different and inconsistent (Bean et al., 2006). endobj In the Spanish version the indexes were between .48 and .65 with respect to convergent validity, and regarding divergent one were -.27, and -.61 (Garca-Prez et al., 2019). 15-52). <>stream

(2013). in front of my friends)"; theses reactive got b values higher than 2 (Table 4). May The sample included 136 father-adolescent pairings. Facultad de Formacin del Profesorado y Educacin Despacho 322, c.p. 2 AERA, APA & NCME (1985) point out the need to develop a validity process with different settings. (B'$Oh$X endstream <>/P 24 0 R/S/Link>> Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development , 70, 1-147. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3701442. Likewise, the skewness and kurtosis values in the items ranged from 1.48 to -1.77 in skewness, and from 1.38 to -0.90 in kurtosis. Note. First, English is the mother tongue of the initial sample and Spanish is the mother tongue of the sample in which the adaptation was made. The intervening role of relational aggression between psychological control and friendship quality. The values of divergent validity were between -.31 and .55; and regarding convergent validity, these were between .13 and .58. Early parenting and children's relational and physical aggression in the preschool and home contexts. The Relationship among Paternal Psychological Control and Adolescents Perfectionism and Self-Esteem: A Partial Least Squares Path Analysis, AUTHORS: First, it was checked whether the data were suitable for EFA and CFA: normality of sample (skewness, kurtosis). Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. An examination using the Berkeley puppet interview, Longitudinal Relations Among Parenting, Best Friends, and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Testing Bidirectional Effects, Parenting processes and aggression: The role of self-control among Turkish adolescents, Psychological Distress as a Mediator of the Relation Between Perceived Maternal Parenting and Normative Maladaptive Eating Among Adolescent Girls, Educational Encouragement, Parenting styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Children. Parental psychological control had significant influence (weight) on two self-concept domains for the full sample ratings: family and social self-concept. PCS-YSR = Psychological Control Scale, PCDS = Psychological Control-Disrespect Scale, DAPCS_DPC = Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale_Dependency-Oriented psychological control, DAPCS_APC = Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale_Achievement-Oriented psychological control, P-PASS = Perceived Parental Autonomy Support Scale, AF5 = Autoconcepto Forma 5. Applied Psychological Measurement, 27, 289-298. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146621603027004004. endobj Z[rI2) U'sRVEy.'%+:5$H%;(6F[.=gDf|[GV: h,aWe [Links], Garca, F., & Musitu, G. (1999). In this way, the emotional self-concept was influenced by maternal psychological control in the full sample and specifically in the women's sample. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. From SDT, parents who are perceived as controllers impede the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. 2081 0 obj Furthermore, it would be very interesting to assess if these relationships that the youth develop as a result of a huge psychological-manipulative control practiced by their fathers, become independent social relationships. International Journal of Human Sciences, 9, 1581-1590. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/268072747.pdf. Thus, psychological control would be particularly related to personality problems, such as low self-esteem and depression. Nevertheless, this result was not found for maternal ratings and neither for PCDS (maternal and paternal ratings). Therefore, when this basic need is frustrated, the person experiences a sense of pressuring to act, think, or feel in a particular way. The first EFA could suggest one factor for mothers and fathers (Table 1). Anales de Psicologa, 29, 1038-1059. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.1.262131. <>1163 0 R]/P 2100 0 R/Pg 2087 0 R/S/Link>> Participants rated the items separately for each parent. Then, in the quantitative phase, key exemplars of eight domains of psychological control, -that were indicated by youths in focus groups- were used to create items for a survey administered to 2100 youths: ridiculing, embarrassing in public, invalidating, violation of privacy, induction of guilt, excessive expectations, comparing to others, and ignoring. The study was not previously approved by any ethics committee because it was not necessary to do it in our region. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. in front of my friends)], No me respeta como persona (Ejemplo: No me deja hablar, favorece a otros antes que a mi) [Doesn't respect me as a person (e.g. On the contrary, the one domain solution, obtained a worse fit, x2 (285, 103) = 360.29; p < .001; TLI = .76, CFI = .80, RMSEA = .09, SRMR = .06. df = degrees of freedom, TLI-NNFI =Tucker Lewis Index - Non-normed Fit Index; CFI = comparative fit index, GFI = goodness of fit index, RMSR= Root Mean Square of Residuals, PCS-YSR = Psychological Control Scale, PCDS = Psychological Control-Disrespect Scale. 22 0 obj 36 0 obj Los resultados indicaron que ambas escalas son instrumentos tiles para evaluar el control psicolgico parental. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, psychological control, particularly as perceived by preadolescents and adolescents, is consistently predictive of youth internalized problems (depression) and, in some cases, externalized problems (delinquency). <> The fit model measures included: the Chi-Square significance test (X Regarding absolute indices (GFI and RMSR), the values shows the best fit when PCS-YSR and PCDS are considered individually. <>1165 0 R]/P 2088 0 R/Pg 2087 0 R/S/Link>> Parental psychological control, psychological autonomy, and acceptance as predictors of self-esteem in Latino adolescents. The participants were distributed into two samples from different campuses of the same Spanish university. <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 51 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> The findings produced good results; it can be concluded that the model keeps along students' gender, Ax In this sense, Barber and Harmon (2002) explain that psychological control can be manifested through different parental behaviors and tactics: a) guilt induction, that refers to the use of guilt to get children to do what the parents want, b) love withdrawal, which refers to the use of love and care as a reward or punishment to get children to adapt to the parental expectations, c) induction of anxiety to get children to do what the parents want, and d) invalidation of the children's perspective, which refers to the constraint of the children's spontaneous expression of thoughts, wishes and feelings. endobj All variables ranged from values of 2.15 to -1.78 for skewness, and 2.41 to -0.58 for kurtosis.