Magis Center This research was published in Physical Review D. ScienceAlert US LLC. This ensemble would be the multiverse. Physically speaking, our Universe seems uncannily perfect. For some reason, the amount of energy or more precisely, the mass it equates and the Universe's accelerating expansion are so neatly balanced, there's been ample opportunity for a few interesting things to unfold over the past 13 billion years or so. Learn more. Do these numbers point to the existence of God. Now suppose that you pick up a second stone, and you see that its shaped exactly like someones face. The term Big Bang conjures images of an explosion, and usually when we think of an explosion we imagine a highly chaotic, stochastic event that destroys any order that is present rather than creating or preserving order. These are often called the four fundamental forces. As Nobel laureate in physics Charles Townesstated: Intelligent design, as one sees it from a scientific point of view, seems to be quite real. Go Deeper (Penrose, who describes himself as an atheist, posited that there must have been a very special constraint at the Big Bang forcing it to result in low entropy.). Most tend to fall into two categories, however. It's already very extraordinary that the cosmological constant should balance the vacuum energy so well. This is a very special universe: its remarkable that it came out just this way. TED: The ability for there to be different kinds of stars depends on a relationship between two universal constants. In order for life to exist at all, the universe has to meet certain conditions. Not specifically, but it does mean that there had to be some very extraordinary reason why our universe is the way it is. Blue giants, on the other hand, put out too much radiation and are relatively short-lived, leaving too little time for life to develop. It does provide excellent food for thought, however. It would not be available for the development of life forms. In a multiverse, the laws of physics and the values of physical parameters like dark energy would be different in each universe, each the outcome of some random pull on the cosmic slot machine. The universe did not have to exist as it does, and statistically, it shouldnt. A Universe From Nothing
Roger Penrose,English mathematical physicistand Nobel Laureate in Physics / Cirone-Musi, Festival della Scienza, CC BY-SA 2.0, Does this improbability prove that supernatural design was at work? Testing the Multiverse The laws of physics and the values of physical constants seem, as Goldilocks said, just right. If even one of a host of physical properties of the universe had been different, stars, planets, and galaxies would never have formed. Imagine starting with a small balloon whose surface is curved and blowing it up some forty orders of magnitude. Nonetheless, there is growing and grudging acceptance of the multiverse, especially because it is predicted by a theory that was developed to solve one of the most frustrating of fine-tuning problems of allthe flatness of our universe. Any small piece of the balloons surface will now look flat. It is 1.00137841870 times heavier than the proton, which is what allows it to decay into a proton, electron and neutrinoa process that determined the relative abundances of hydrogen and helium after the big bang and gave us a universe dominated by hydrogen. Their model puts the Higgs particle at the center of the fine-tuning explanation. Since the water has more energy than the ice, energy flows from the water to the ice and melts it. By coupling the boson with other particles in such a way that its low mass would effectively 'trigger' events in physics we observe, it provides a link between forces and mass. It turns out that a variation of only 2% in the strong force's constant would have catastrophic effects for the universe. Electromagnetic force versus force of gravity: 1 part in 10^37, Mass density of universe: 1 part in 10^59, Expansion rate of universe: 1 part in 10^55. Instead, you would assume that someone carved or molded it. The mission of the Magis Center is to create content that helps people find higher purpose in life, an awareness of their transcendent dignity, a sense of the transcendent providential power who guides them, and a determination to live ethically responsible lives. To resolve this problem, physicist Paul Davies suggests that the cosmological constant must actually have a negative value nearly as large as the value calculated from the vacuum energy. Hiranya Peiris looks for evidence of other universes in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Once the ice is completely melted, the water's energy is in equilibriumthere's no reason for it to transfer. This sudden expansion, which Guth called inflation, would have rendered our observable universe flat regardless of the value of Omega before inflation began. If you look at a periodic table, you'll see that each element has a number associated with it. So, in fact, we wouldnt be living here at allwe wouldnt exist. From there, the authors show how weakly interacting variables in a field might affect different kinds of empty space, specifically patches of nothingness with varying degrees of expansion. If were several orders of magnitude greater, the expansion of the universe would be explosive, and it is doubtful if galaxies could ever have formed against such a disruptive force. The equations for calculating this indicate that we should see a cosmological constant at least fifty orders of magnitude larger than the value we observe. We just happened to luck into a universe that is conducive to life. If we got all the way back to the Big Bang, we would find that the universe had very low entropy indeed. For electrons and protons, the solution could come with explanations of why there's an imbalance of matter over antimatter. The other possibility is that our universe was planned, and thats why it has come out so specially. In the case of the Universe's incredible reflection of energy and expansion, there's no shortage of clever and creative ideas to chew on. They are specified in that they match the specific requirements needed for life. Why Is Our Universe Fine-Tuned for Life? This anthropic principle infuriates many physicists, for it implies that we cannot really explain our universe from first principles. They imagine a type of universe generator that creates universes infinitely. In a high entropy universe, however, that energy would already be spread out and close to equilibrium. Caltech Finds Amazing Role for Noncoding DNA, Ultra-Conserved Elements: Same Old Results. On the other hand, it could be a consequence of what's referred to as 'naturalness'.
. These constants are quite fundamental, so it's not surprising that they appear in equations that affect stars. Life would have been all but impossible. Editors note: In the past weve offered the top 10 problems with Darwinian evolution (see here for a fuller elaboration), and the top five problems with origin-of-life theories. Guth showed that in the instants after the big bang, the universe would have undergone a period of exponential expansion. Spitzer on How to Pray for Your Enemies and Forgive. But for Faber, an atheist, divine intervention is not the answer. You're already familiar with many cases of energy seeking equilibrium. Imagine that, while youre on a hike, you pick up a small stone. It gets more extraordinary, however, when we consider how the vacuum energy's contribution is calculated. Diagram of an Atom /AG Caesar, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons. This is significant because a high entropy universe would have the same amount of energy as a low entropy universe. What all this shares is an incredible, astronomically precise, purposeful care and planning that went into the crafting of the laws and constants of the universe, gesturing unmistakably to intelligent design. by The size of the Moon, the Sun, and our perspective of both don't need any further explanations to make sense. A whole host of forces went into its formation: volcanic activity, glaciers, wind, rain, etc. signs of other universes For more on this topic, watch Fr. Watch the video above and talk about it with a group or mentor. But is a life-prohibiting universe possible? Because this is statistically impossible, some have speculated a multiverse theory. Scientists expect the universe to eventually reach a point of maximum entropy. The very structure of the universe is determined by the fundamental constants and quantities discovered by brilliant minds. The urge to understand our universe from first principles and not ascribe it to some divine force compels us to seek scientific explanations for what seems to be an incredible stroke of luck. Highly unlikely. For example, there seems to be some sort of mysterious fine-tuning between the mass of a Higgs boson and the cosmological constant the density of energy in the vacuum of space. -Paul Davies, Physicist. He also points to the reasonable assumption that the universe cannot cause or even explain its own existence. Some scientists respond, Well, there must be an enormous number of universes and each one is a little different. This constant is a fundamental value similar to the constants from our previous example. Here is where the fine-tuning comes in. Known as the fine-tuning argument, it goes like this: The fine-tuning argument is often a topic for debate. To that end, the Magis Center produces and distributes media that provides contemporary commentary on timeless topics. Around midnight, Faber wrapped up her observations and we stepped out for a few minutes under the night sky. Inflation, therefore, walks both sides of the fine-tuning line: It lends credence to the anthropic principle by predicting a multiverse, but it also reminds us that parameters we once thought were fine-tuned, like Omega, can be explained by a more fundamental theory. For reference, fifty orders of magnitude is as though you expected an inch and measured 1,578,282,282,282,282,282,282,282, 282,282,282,282,282,282,282 miles instead. There would be more and more opportunity for energy to be transferred. Although fun to think about, without any way of establishing the existence of multiverses it isn't a proposition that could bear scientific fruit. FQXi: (Supoj Buranaprapapong/Moment/Getty Images). If the value of the gravitational constant were slightly larger, one consequence would be that stars would become too hot and burn out too quickly. One is that there is a God and that God made it that way, she said. Editors picks for further reading. It might have been weathered rather more, for example, or it might have landed 3 feet to the left of the path. This one just happened to turn out right. Thats a postulate, and its a pretty fantastic postulate it assumes there really are an enormous number of universes and that the laws could be different for each of them. The following gives a sense of the degree of fine-tuning that must go into some of these values to yield a life-friendly universe: The last item in the list the initial entropy of the universe shows an astounding degree of fine-tuning. The great mystery is not why there is dark energy. Now, how likely is it that our universe just happened to be a low entropy one? This is our home.. One would like to get a look at the universe-generating machine responsible for this abundance. To explain how the nucleus stays together, physicists have posited the strong force. If it didn't, the system just wouldn't look the way it does. -Walter Bradley. Its extremely unlikely to be exactly the way that it is, but however it ended up being would be just as unlikely.
Tweak the charge on an electron, for instance, or change the strength of the gravitational force or the strong nuclear force just a smidgen, and the universe would look very different, and likely be lifeless. This law means that the energy of the universe is being transferred and thus coming closer and closer to equilibrium. Imagine dropping an ice cube into a glass of water. Not only is it possible, it is far more likely than a life-permitting universe. You may recall that the nucleus is at the center of the atom, and that each nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Art for the Ages: Michelangelo and Body Image, A Lawyer, a Journalist, and a Scientist Detail the Miracle of the Sun, 2021 Magis Center | If any of these fundamental forces were altered even slightly, the universe would cease to exist. All rights reserved. That means that a cosmological parameter called Omega, which dials in the curvature of spacetime, is very close to one. The constants and quantities of the fundamental forces are not determined by the laws of nature they dont have to be dialed as they are so there is no evidence suggesting that fine-tuning is necessary. In his article, Evidence of God from Contemporary Science & Philosophy, Father Spitzer presents the argument that the universe had a beginning and had to have come from something that is not physical reality, i.e. Victor Stenger provides a critical analysis of the so-called anthropic coincidences.. This might imply there are other universes, though. This smacked of fine-tuning. If were negative, the explosion would be replaced by a catastrophic collapse of the universe. If two features of a system seem incredibly well matched, there's a strong desire to dig through the rulebook for a deeper explanation.