15, 505534. "Compensatory Control and the Appeal of a Structured World". Grounded in the social development model and stress-buffering model, this study investigated whether deviant peer affiliation mediates the relation between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior, and whether this indirect link is moderated by school connectedness. We used Mplus 7.1 to perform structural equation modeling in order to examine mediation and moderation effects (Muthn and Muthn, 19982012). 35, 10611067. (1971). Comput. 28, 399413. Third, we investigated why some adolescents, despite exposure to parental psychological control, do not show high levels of aggressive behavior. Educ. Cronbachs was 0.79. YT, CY, and WZ conceived and designed the research. 35, 420438. A., Allen, J. P., Hessel, E. T., and Molloy, L. E. (2015). , How a person regulates themselves or wishes to regulate their environment, This article is about the concept in psychology. A total of 4265 adolescents (2074 boys) between the ages of 9 and 19 (Meanage = 13.66, SD = 2.74) participated. Grounded in the social development model and stress-buffering model, this study investigated whether deviant peer affiliation mediates the relationship between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior, and whether this indirect link is moderated by school connectedness. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2016.02.024, Longobardi, C., Iotti, N. O., Jungert, T., and Settanni, M. (2018). Behav. doi: 10.1080/15388220.2017.1387128, Loukas, A., and Pasch, K. E. (2013). Temperament and adolescent problematic internet use: the mediating role of deviant peer affiliation. Thus, parental psychological control may increase the risk of developing deviant peer affiliation through shape adolescents cognition of peer interaction (Cook and Fletcher, 2012; Zhu et al., 2017); which in turn would cause higher levels of aggression.  Effortful control works by allowing individuals the ability to start or stop behaviors they may or may not want to perform through attention management. 63, 110. However, there are also other factors that have important roles in adolescent aggressive behaviors, such as parental corporal punishment, social status of adolescents, and student-teacher relationships (Zhu et al., 2017; Longobardi et al., 2018).
doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.075, Lin, S., Yu, C., Chen, W., Tian, Y., and Zhang, W. (2018). The Emotional Engagement Subscale of the School Engagement Scale assessed adolescents school connectedness (Wang et al., 2011). Psychol. (2017). Second, adolescents learn behavior patterns from their delinquent peers via observation and imitation, which in turn increase the risk of aggressive behavior (Bandura, 1977; Wang et al., 2017). 74, 462468. Robbins, Oh, Le and Button. High perceived control is often associated with better health, relationships, and adjustment. 53, 2751. Furthermore, researchers describe aggressive behavior as defensive and premeditated (Takahashi et al., 2011). Personality and aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: a meta-analytic review. , In learning psychology, social control refers to "an individual's skills in engaging the social environment in ways that help to support and reinforce his or her learning activities. For other uses, see, Please expand the article to include this information. p < 0.01. (2013) found that parental psychological control predicts adolescent relational and physical aggression. Hum. Control over oneself or others can extend to the regulation of emotions, thoughts, actions, impulses, memory, attention or experiences. Pers. Child Abuse Negl. School engagement: potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Figure 2. The mean of the 12 items was calculated, with higher scores reflecting higher deviant peer affiliation. J. Res. (2008). Adolescent externalizing behaviour, psychological control, and peer rejection: transactional links and dopaminergic moderation.  Perceived control can be affected by two processes: primary and secondary control. A., and Hart, C. H. (2013). Adolescent reported on their deviant peer affiliation using the Chinese version of the Deviant Peers Questionnaire (Zhu et al., 2015). doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310, Cook, E. C., and Fletcher, A. C. (2012). One such factor is school connectedness, which includes interactions between the adolescent and peers, between the adolescent and teachers, and between the adolescent and other significant members of the school (Fredricks et al., 2004). YT, CY, and SL contributed to the writing of the manuscript. (2017).
Child Dev. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.07.001, Loke, A. Y., Mak, Y. W., and Wu, C. S. T. (2016).  There are two types of inhibitory control: hot and cold. Primary control consists of attempting to change the environment to align with one's own wishes, whereas secondary perceived refers to the act of attempting to gain control by changing one's wishes to reflect what exists or is achievable within the environment. Therefore, further research needs to include these factors as independent variables or control variables to better understand the etiology of adolescent aggressive behavior. Dev. 8:1181. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01181, Calkins, S. D., and Keane, S. P. (2009). Behav. Social Learning Theory. Public Health. doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-2000-y, Tian, Y., Yu, C., Lin, S., Lu, J., Liu, Y., and Zhang, W. (2019). (2015). This subscale consists of eight items, scored on a 5-point Likert scale (that is, from 1 = Strongly disagree to 5 = Strongly agree), and asks participants to report the extent of their connectedness with their school, with items such as In general, I feel like a real part of this school. The mean of the eight items was calculated, with higher scores reflecting higher school connectedness. 74, 4854. Dev. 9:2727. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02727, Wang, M. T., Willett, J. According to the stress-buffering model (Cohen and Wills, 1985), there are several protective factors that could mitigate the effect of environmental risk on the onset of aggressive behaviors. Adolescents with lower school connectedness were more likely to associate with deviant peers, which in turn contributed to higher levels of aggressive behavior. Child Psychol. Does school connectedness buffer the impact of peer victimization on early adolescents subsequent adjustment problems? School climate and adolescent aggression: a moderated mediation model involving deviant peer affiliation and sensation seeking. Cronbachs was 0.88. The mean of the eight items was calculated, with higher scores reflecting higher parental psychological control.
Figure 1 illustrates the proposed research model. 9:1036. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01036, Liu, S., Yu, C., Zhen, S., Zhang, W., Su, P., and Xu, Y. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.12.001, Longobardi, C., Prino, L. E., Fabris, M. A., and Settanni, M. (2017). , Cognitive control is "the ability to control one's thoughts and actions. In other words, school connectedness acts as a buffer for the negative effects of negative family relations on delinquent behaviors (Loukas et al., 2010). doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00632.x, Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., Parker, P. D., Parada, R. H., Guo, J., Dicke, T., et al. This study thus identifies the potential underlying mechanism by which parental psychological control is associated with adolescent aggressive behaviors, which has important implications for theory and prevention. (2017). Bull. Differ. These findings show that school connectedness decreases the influence of the parental psychological control on deviant peer affiliation in adolescents (Loukas et al., 2010). Child. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relationship between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior.  Desired control is often associated with perceived control, and studies focused on individuals with a lower desire for control show a correlation with greater psychological problems. Landau, Kay and Whitson. Alcohol and drugs also influence one's inhibitory control. Res. The participants in this study were recruited from eleven schools in Guangdong province, southern China, through stratified and random cluster sampling. 50, 159168. Human aggression. 45, 15371551. Copyright 2019 Tian, Yu, Lin, Lu, Liu and Zhang. "Relations Between inhibitory Control and the Development of Academic Skills in Preschool and Kindergarten: A Meta-Analysis". You don't always get what you want, and you don't always want what you get: An examination of controldesire for control congruence in transactional relationships.
Further, other studies have shown that lower levels of school connectedness are positively correlated with aggressive behavior, while higher levels of school connectedness have important protective effects for adolescent development (Millings et al., 2012; Oldfield et al., 2018).
Applicability of the social development model to urban ethnic minority youth: examining the relationship between external constraints, family socialization, and problem behaviors. Adolesc. The mean of the 19 items was calculated, with higher scores reflecting more aggressive behavior. Dev. This is due to parental psychological control having a negative effect on adolescent friendship, which has been observed within a wide range of adolescent friendliness, such as peer relation (Oudekerk et al., 2015) and peer rejection (Janssens et al., 2017). Parental psychological control and adolescent adjustment: the role of adolescent emotion regulation. 137, 113123. (2009). Peer victimization and social alienation: predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school.
 Furthermore, these results were consistent among both male and female subjects. Dev. YT, CY, and SL analyzed the data. 67, 32963319.
Nelson, D. A., Yang, C., Coyne, S. M., Olsen, J. The interplay between ADHD symptoms and time perspective in addictive social media use: a study on adolescent Facebook users. The association of peer pressure and peer affiliation with the health risk behaviors of secondary school students in Hong Kong.  The opposite of emotion regulation is emotional dysregulation which occurs when problems arise in the emotional control process that result in the inability to process emotions in a healthy manner. J. Abnorm. Further, the results indicate that school connectedness only moderates the first stage of the mediating effect (i.e., parental psychological control deviant peer affiliation).
doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00642.x, Cui, L., Morris, A. S., Criss, M. M., Houltberg, B. J., and Silk, J. S. (2014).
Sensation seeking, deviant peer affiliation, and Internet gaming addiction among Chinese adolescents: the moderating effect of parental knowledge. Psychopharmacology 213, 183212. , Emotional control is a term from literature on self-regulatory psychology and refers to "the ability to self-manage or regulate attitudes and feelings that directly affect participant receptiveness to, and implementation of, training activities.
21, 461481. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, Learn how and when to remove this template message, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), "Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control", "Perceived Control and Mindfulness: Implications for Clinical Practice", "Call for Papers: The Contribution of Learning and Memory Processes to Cognitive Control", "Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions", "Temperament | Temperamental Effortful Control (Self-Regulation)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Control_(psychology)&oldid=1099123011, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with style issues from October 2015, Articles needing additional references from October 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2021, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Desired control (the amount of control one seeks within a relationship or other circumstance), Motivational control (one's ability to act on prescribed behaviors), Social control (selecting one's environment for personal benefit), Ego control (the attempt to regulate impulses or attention processes), This page was last edited on 19 July 2022, at 03:36. Barber, B. K. (1996). activities. Psychol. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Of those paths, the following were significant: gender, age and SES on delinquent peer affiliation (b1 = 0.10, b2 = 0.01, b3 = -0.02, b4 = 0.05), gender, age and SES on aggressive behavior (b1 = 0.08, b2 = 0.01, b3 = 0.15). In line with the social development model (Hawkins and Weis, 1985), there is ample research evidence demonstrating the mediating role of deviant peer affiliation in the relation between negative parenting and adolescent problem behaviors including aggressive behavior (Hinnant et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2017).
"Validation and extension of the contingency model of leadership effectiveness: A review of empirical findings.  Effortful control often interacts with and is central in other forms of control such as emotional control and inhibitory control. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos. The cascading development of autonomy and relatedness from adolescence to adulthood. , Inhibitory control (IC) is another type of self-regulation: "the ability to inhibit prepotent thoughts or actions flexibly, often in favor of a subdominant action, typically in goal-directed behavior". "Event Structure and Cognitive Control". Bandura, A. PPC, Parental psychological control; DPA, Deviant peer affiliation. J. Sch. The mediation model revealed that the model is identified to the data: 2/df = 2.14, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.023. Addict. Rev.
Temporal ordering effects of adolescent depression, relational aggression, and victimization over six waves: fully latent reciprocal effects models. 52, 1221.  Cognitive control is commonly tested using the Stroop color-word task as well as the Eriksen flanker task.
Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 2: School connectedness will moderate the indirect relation between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior. Child Dev. A mindfulness-based strategy for self-management of aggressive behavior in adolescents with autism. In the psychological studies, aggressive behavior has been generally defined as any behavior that has intention of causing harm to others who want to avoid being harmed (Anderson and Bushman, 2002; Bettencourt et al., 2006; Cabello et al., 2017). For example, with a longitudinal study of aggression in Chinese students from grades 7 to 9, Zhu et al. School connectedness buffers the effects of negative family relations and poor effortful control on early adolescent conduct problems. (2016).
J. Appl. (2006). A sample item is How many of your friends got involved in fights during the past six months? Each item was rated on a scale from 1 (Never) to 3 (Six or more times). Deviant peer affiliation as an explanatory mechanism in the association between corporal punishment and physical aggression: a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents.
Prev. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence. (2017) reported that deviant peer affiliation mediated the effect of parental corporal punishment on adolescent physical aggression. , Effortful control is a type of self-regulation. 52, 19942009. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.462, Zhu, J., Yu, C., Bao, Z., Jiang, Y., Zhang, W., Chen, Y., et al. J. Appl. Violence 18, 4961. Descriptive statistics and the Pearson product-moment correlations for all variables.
(2017). In social psychology experiments conducted by Daniel M. Wegner, Ralph Erber and R.E. During adolescence, time spent with family steadily decreases and an increasing amount of time is spent in the company of peers (Zhu et al., 2016; Lin et al., 2018; Tian et al., 2019). This finding indicates that school connectedness interacts with a parenting factor (parental psychological control) to amplify the mediating processes. To encourage honest reporting, participants were assured that their answers would be kept confidential. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.06.008, Zhu, J., Zhang, W., Yu, C., and Bao, Z. 34, 896922. B., Erath, S. A., Tu, K. M., and El-Sheikh, M. (2015). Child Dev.
Adolesc. Violence in school: an investigation of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization reported by Italian adolescents. " In other words, it is the capability of an individual to act on intentional reasoning, rather than out of emotion or impulse. By investigating these mechanisms, we would be able to identify effective family and school interventions for reducing the risk of adolescent aggressive behaviors. 74, 59109. Child Psychol. *Correspondence: Chengfu Yu, email@example.com Wei Zhang, firstname.lastname@example.org, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Early Adolesc. However, there was no significant interaction between school connectedness and deviant peer affiliation in predicting aggressive behavior (b = -0.03, SE = 0.03, t = -1.15, p > 0.05). Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior.  This highlights the effect of ironic rebound: when the individuals attempted not to be sexist under a significant time constraint, their resulting actions were counter to their attempts at cognitive control. Other studies have found that school connectedness interacts with various social-environmental factors, such as parenting (Loukas et al., 2010) and peer factors (Millings et al., 2012; Rudasill et al., 2014; Oldfield et al., 2018), on adolescent behaviors. (2014). Further details may exist on the. Parental psychological control: revisiting a neglected construct. 6, 7397. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00109.x, Cohen, S., and Wills, T. A. 85, 124139. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior. Muthn, L. K., and Muthn, B. O. Permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, and delinquent behavior in adolescence: the moderating role of sympathetic nervous system reactivity. First, we provide evidence that parental psychological control might increase the risk of adolescent aggressive behavior. Third, in this study, we have focused on several factors to explain the mediating and moderating mechanisms of adolescent aggressive behavior. First, even though we used a large sample to test the moderation and mediation models of adolescent problem behavior, our cross-sectional design questionnaire method does not permit us to establish a causal direction. doi: 10.3102/00346543074001059, Hawkins, J. D., and Weis, J. G. (1985). In addition, school connectedness was negatively associated with deviant peer affiliation and aggressive behavior, whereas deviant peer affiliation was positively associated with aggressive behavior.  Some participants were given guidance to avoid being sexist, whereas some were not given such instructions. J. Adolesc.
According to the social development model (Hawkins and Weis, 1985; Choi et al., 2005), parental psychological control may promote the risk of adolescents affiliating with deviant peers, which in turn may increase adolescent delinquencies such as aggressive behavior. Structural equation models revealed that the relation between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior is partially mediated by deviant peer affiliation. 89, 165170.
Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: predicting adolescent problem behaviors. We need to be cautious about possible bias, including self-presentation biases (Williams et al., 1989; Longobardi et al., 2018; Settanni et al., 2018).  Emotional control contains several emotional regulation strategies including distraction, cognitive reappraisal, and emotional action control. A few researchers have found that school connectedness moderates the impact of family factors. School connectedness, peer attachment, and self-esteem as predictors of adolescent depression. J. Sch. Participants reported on their own aggressive behaviors using the Chinese version of the BussWarren aggression questionnaire (BWAQ) (Maxwell, 2008; Lin et al., 2018).
Psychol. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.037, Millings, A., Buck, R., Montgomery, A., Spears, M., and Stallard, P. (2012). 33, 245266. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9791-3, Fredricks, J. Moreover, adolescents with high school connectedness may recognize the negative effects of psychological control and deviant peer affiliation, and they may be buffered by desire to obey the rules or fear of getting caught (Loukas and Pasch, 2013; Liu et al., 2016; Loke et al., 2016). The results showed that school connectedness moderated the association between parental psychological control and deviant peer affiliation (b = -0.05, SE = 0.02, t = -2.02, p < 0.05). (2014). Psychol. For instance, Nelson et al. The moderated mediation model represented in Figure 3 had an excellent fit to the data: 2/df = 2.69 CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.034. Increased cognitive control allows individuals to have increased flexibility in their ability to choose between conflicting stimuli. This finding is partially consistent with our hypothesis 2 and the stress-buffering model (Cohen and Wills, 1985), in which strong school connectedness protects against deviant peer affiliation under psychological control, presumably because strong school connectedness motivates adolescents to conform to social regulations and decreases the likelihood of their involvement in deviant peer groups (Loukas et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2016). The results showed a significant, positive relation between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior. Res. This study examined the mediating and moderating mechanism between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior in a large sample. Psychol. " It is also known as controlled processing, executive attention, and supervisory attention. B., and Eccles, J. S. (2011). 44, 10711081. 10:358. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00358. These findings suggest that school educators can effectively help adolescents (especially those with high parental psychological control) avoid developing aggressive behavior by increasing their connectedness with the school.